Cleanflight supports a number of mixing configurations as well as custom mixing. Mixer configurations determine how the servos and motors work together to control the aircraft.
To use a built-in mixing configuration, you can use the Chrome configuration GUI. It includes images of the various mixer types to assist in making the proper connections. See the Configuration section of the documentation for more information on the GUI.
You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to set the mixer type:
mixer listto see a list of supported mixes
- Select a mixer. For example, to select TRI, use
- You must use
saveto preserve your changes
Supported Mixer Types
|BI||Bicopter (left/right)||M1-M2||S1, S2|
|GIMBAL||Gimbal control||N/A||S1, S2|
|FLYING_WING||Fixed wing; elevons||M1||S1, S2|
|AIRPLANE||Fixed wing; Ax2, R, E||M1||S1, S2, S3, S4|
|VTAIL4||Quadcopter with V-Tail||M1-M4||N/A|
|ATAIL4||Quadcopter with A-Tail||M1-M4||N/A|
|CUSTOM AIRPLANE||User-defined airplane|
|CUSTOM TRICOPTER||User-defined tricopter|
servo command defines the settings for the servo outputs.
The cli mixer
smix command controllers how the mixer maps internal FC data (RC input, PID stabilisation output, channel forwarding, etc) to servo outputs.
A low-pass filter can be enabled for the servos. It may be useful for avoiding structural modes in the airframe, for example.
Currently it can only be configured via the CLI:
set servo_lowpass_freq = nnnto select the cutoff frequency. Valid values range from 10 to 400. This is a fraction of the loop frequency in 1/1000ths. For example,
set servo_lowpass_enable = 1to enable filtering.
The cutoff frequency can be determined by the following formula:
Frequency = 1000 * servo_lowpass_freq / looptime
For example, if
servo_lowpass_freq is set to 40, and looptime is set to the default of 3500 us, the cutoff frequency will be 11.43 Hz.
One method for tuning the filter cutoff is as follows:
Ensure your vehicle can move at least somewhat freely in the troublesome axis. For example, if you are having yaw oscillations on a tricopter, ensure that the copter is supported in a way that allows it to rotate left and right to at least some degree. Suspension near the CG is ideal. Alternatively, you can just fly the vehicle and trigger the problematic condition you are trying to eliminate, although tuning will be more tedious.
Tap the vehicle at its end in the axis under evaluation. Directly commanding the servo in question to move may also be used. In the tricopter example, tap the end of the tail boom from the side, or command a yaw using your transmitter.
If your vehicle oscillates for several seconds or even continues oscillating indefinitely, then the filter cutoff frequency should be reduced. Reduce the value of
servo_lowpass_freqby half its current value and repeat the previous step.
If the oscillations are dampened within roughly a second or are no longer present, then you are done. Be sure to run
Custom Motor Mixing
Custom motor mixing allows for completely customized motor configurations. Each motor must be defined with a custom mixing table for that motor. The mix must reflect how close each motor is with reference to the CG (Center of Gravity) of the flight controller. A motor closer to the CG of the flight controller will need to travel less distance than a motor further away.
Steps to configure custom mixer in the CLI:
mixer customto enable the custom mixing.
mmix resetto erase the any existing custom mixing.
- Issue a
mmixstatement for each motor.
The mmix statement has the following syntax:
mmix n THROTTLE ROLL PITCH YAW
|Mixing table parameter||Definition|
|n||Motor ordering number|
|THROTTLE||All motors that are used in this configuration are set to 1.0. Unused set to 0.0.|
|ROLL||Indicates how much roll authority this motor imparts to the roll of the flight controller. Accepts values nominally from 1.0 to -1.0.|
|PITCH||Indicates the pitch authority this motor has over the flight controller. Also accepts values nominally from 1.0 to -1.0.|
|YAW||Indicates the direction of the motor rotation in relationship with the flight controller. 1.0 = CCW -1.0 = CW.|
mmix command may show a motor mix that is not active, custom motor mixes are only active for models that use custom mixers.
Note: You have to configure every motor number starting at 0. Your command will be ignored if there was no
mmix command for the previous motor number. See example 5.
Custom Servo Mixing
Custom servo mixing rules can be applied to each servo. Rules are applied in the order they are defined.
|2||ELEVATOR / SINGLECOPTER_4|
|3||FLAPPERON 1 (LEFT) / SINGLECOPTER_1|
|4||FLAPPERON 2 (RIGHT) / BICOPTER_LEFT / DUALCOPTER_LEFT / SINGLECOPTER_2|
|5||RUDDER / BICOPTER_RIGHT / DUALCOPTER_RIGHT / SINGLECOPTER_3|
|6||THROTTLE (Based ONLY on the first motor output)|
|8||RC AUX 1|
|9||RC AUX 2|
|10||RC AUX 3|
|11||RC AUX 4|
smix command may show a servo mix that is not active, custom servo mixes are only active for models that use custom mixers.
Servos are reversed using the
smix reverse command.
e.g. when using the TRI mixer to reverse the tail servo on a tricopter use this:
smix reverse 5 2 r
i.e. when mixing rudder servo slot (
5) using Stabilised YAW input source (
2) reverse the direction (
smix reverse is a per-profile setting. So ensure you configure it for your profiles as required.
Example 1: A KK2.0 wired motor setup
Here's an example of a X configuration quad, but the motors are still wired using the KK board motor numbering scheme.
KK2.0 Motor Layout 1CW 2CCW \ / KK / \ 4CCW 3CW
mmix 0 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, -1.0for the Front Left motor. It tells the flight controller the #1 motor is used, provides positive roll, provides negative pitch and is turning CW.
mmix 1 1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0for the Front Right motor. It still provides a negative pitch authority, but unlike the front left, it provides negative roll authority and turns CCW.
mmix 2 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0for the Rear Right motor. It has negative roll, provides positive pitch when the speed is increased and turns CW.
mmix 3 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0for the Rear Left motor. Increasing motor speed imparts positive roll, positive pitch and turns CCW.
Example 2: A HEX-U Copter
Here is an example of a U-shaped hex; probably good for herding giraffes in the Sahara. Because the 1 and 6 motors are closer to the roll axis, they impart much less force than the motors mounted twice as far from the FC CG. The effect they have on pitch is the same as the forward motors because they are the same distance from the FC CG. The 2 and 5 motors do not contribute anything to pitch because speeding them up and slowing them down has no effect on the forward/back pitch of the FC.
HEX6-U .4........3. ............ .5...FC...2. ............ ...6....1...
||half negative||full positive||CW|
||full negative||full negative||CW|
||full positive||full negative||CCW|
||half positive||full positive||CCW|
Example 3: Custom tricopter
mixer CUSTOMTRI mmix reset mmix 0 1.000 0.000 1.333 0.000 mmix 1 1.000 -1.000 -0.667 0.000 mmix 2 1.000 1.000 -0.667 0.000 smix reset smix 0 5 2 100 0 0 100 0 profile 0 smix reverse 5 2 r profile 1 smix reverse 5 2 r profile 2 smix reverse 5 2 r
Example 4: Custom Airplane with Differential Thrust
Here is an example of a custom twin engine plane with Differential Thrust Motors take the first 2 pins, the servos take pins as indicated in the [Servo slot] chart above. Settings bellow have motor yaw influence at "0.3", you can change this nuber to have more or less differential thrust over the two motors. Note: You can look at the Motors tab in Cleanflight Cofigurator to see motor and servo outputs.
|4||Roll / Aileron|
|5||Roll / Aileron|
|6||Yaw / Rudder|
|7||Pitch / Elevator|
mixer CUSTOMAIRPLANE mmix reset mmix 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 # Left Engine mmix 1 1.0 0.0 0.0 -0.3 # Right Engine smix reset # Rule Servo Source Rate Speed Min Max Box smix 0 3 0 100 0 0 100 0 # Roll / Aileron smix 1 4 0 100 0 0 100 0 # Roll / Aileron smix 3 5 2 100 0 0 100 0 # Yaw / Rudder smix 2 2 1 100 0 0 100 0 # Pitch / Elevator
Example 5: Use motor output 0,1,2,4 because your output 3 is broken
For this to work you have to make a dummy mmix for motor 3. We do this by just saying it has 0 impact on yaw,roll and pitch.
mixer custom mmix reset mmix 0 1.0, -1.0, 1.0, -1.0 mmix 1 1.0, -1.0, -1.0, 1.0 mmix 2 1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 mmix 3 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0 mmix 4 1.0, 1.0, -1.0, -1.0 save